A call for bids ,  call for tenders ,  or invitation to tender  ITT , often called tender for short is a special procedure for generating competing offers from different bidders looking to obtain an award of business activity in works, supply, or service contracts.
They are usually preceded by a pre-qualification questionnaire PQQ. Open tenders, open calls for tenders, or advertised tenders are open to all vendors or contractors who can guarantee performance. Restricted tenders, restricted calls for tenders, or invited tenders are only open to selected prequalified vendors or contractors.
This may form part of a two-stage process, the first stage of which as in the expression-of-interest EOI tender call   produces a shortlist of suitable vendors. The reasons for restricted tenders differ in scope and purpose. Restricted tenders can come about because:. Dictionaries explain the etymology as coming from Old French tendre , which means "to offer". The following false etymology [ citation needed ] is sometimes heard:. In an open bid or tender system, a double envelope system may be used.
The double envelope system separates the technical proposal based on and intended to meet the statement of work from the financing or cost proposal in the form of two separate and sealed envelopes. During the tender evaluation, the technical proposal would be opened and evaluated first followed by the financing proposal.
The objective of this system is to ensure a fair evaluation of the proposal. The technical proposal would be evaluated purely on its technical merits and its ability to meet the requirements set forth in the Invitation without being unduly skewed by the financial proposal. A tender box is a mailbox that is used to receive the physical tender or bid documents. When a tender or bid is being called, a tender or bid number is usually issued as a reference number for the tender box. The tender box would be open for interested parties to submit their proposals for the duration of the bid or tender.
Once the duration is over, the tender box is closed and sealed and can only be opened by either the tender or bid evaluation committee or a member of the procurement department with one witness. Registered contractors are usually required to furnish a bond for a stipulated sum as security or earnest money deposit to be adjusted against work done, normally in the form of bank guarantee or surety.
Public sector organizations in many countries are legally obliged to release tenders for works and services. In the majority of cases, these are listed on their websites and traditional print media.
Electronic procurement and tendering systems or e-procurement are also increasingly prevalent. A number of companies provide subscription alert services which send notifications of relevant tender documents to the subscriber.
An array of private organisations also assist businesses in finding out about these tenders. Cost may vary from a few pounds a week to a few hundred.
Because of the specialised language and sometimes difficult-to-grasp procedures, some organizations [ who?
A typical invitation to tender template in any project has the following sections: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It has been suggested that this article be merged with Invitation for bid. Discuss Proposed since April This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Commerce, manufactures, etc, Issues Bureau of Foreign Commerce, United States. The Expression of Interest EOI tender call is to inform tenderers of the context of the project, nature of proposed appointment and submission requirements. The aim of the EOI process is to shortlist the contenders who may be suitable for the appointment.
Herbst, Douglas; Edmondson, Samuel A. Design-build for Water and Wastewater Projects. American Water Works Association. Retrieved from " https: Articles to be merged from April All articles to be merged Articles needing additional references from May All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May Articles with unsourced statements from May Views Read Edit View history.